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Artifacts and Features

Artifacts found at Cluny include pot sherds, stone tools, projectile points, posts, bones, beads, and awls. The following artifacts are representative of items found at the site.


Pre-contact pottery from the Canadian plains is usually highly fragmented. Over 1900 pot sherds have been found at the site. Rim pieces often exhibit incised decoration and/or stamping as in the above images. The pottery also has unique construction with additional clay added to the lip of the pot after the initial vessel had dried. For most of the sherds, the vessel part cannot be identified. Sherds are often found in concentrations around hearth features. Vessel 26 rim (left) and Vessel 18 rim (right).

Pottery found at EePf-1


Intact screen posts and other posts are present at the site. Many posts are heavily decomposed, but post moulds and evidence of post bracing remain. “Paired posts” are sets of posts that appear to occur in pairs, and may be support posts for unknown wooden structures. These posts are located inside the defensive ditch. Support posts (right).

Support Posts


Hearths may be used for cooking, heating, lighting, and waste disposal. A new type of hearth discovered at Cluny is prepared excavated bowl-shaped pit hearths. Hearth location at the site is also of interest as in some cases the hearths appear to be associated with the unknown timber structures represented by the support posts. (Right) Hearth Feature 2009-017 with unburned bones, stone tools, and shell.



 Both stone and bone tools are present at Cluny. Stone tools include projectile points, bifaces, ground stone tools, cobble spalls, and choppers. Projectile points are mainly Plains Side Notched points and are made from porcellanite, Swan River Chert, siltstone, and quartzite. There is one example of a point made from petrified wood as well as petrified wood waste flakes from stone tool production. Bone awls and other bone tools have been found indicating clothing construction. Projectile points (right), Hafted tool implement (bottom left), and Bone perforating or engraving tool (bottom centre) two bone awls (bottom right)

Various Projectile points from EePf-1

Hafted implement, bone perforating tool, and two bone awls


Beads at Cluny are made from bone, shell, glass, and metal and were used for decoration. Evidence of red ochre which was also used for decoration is present on some stone tools. Small fossils have also been found at the site, likely brought in from elsewhere in the region.

Shell beads and shell blanks (top group), bone beads and small fossil (bottom left group), metal and glass beads (bottom right group).

Various beads from EePf-1